Life Science construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells.

3.1.9-12.Bdevelop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.

3.1.9-12.Cplan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.

3.1.9-12.Duse a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms.

3.1.9-12.Euse a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy.

3.1.9-12.F construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules.

3.1.9-12.G use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy.

3.1.9-12.Huse mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem.

3.1.9-12.Iuse mathematical and/or computational representations to support explanations of factors that affect carrying capacity of ecosystems at different scales.

3.1.9-12.J construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

3.1.9-12.Kdevelop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.

3.1.9-12.Luse mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales.

3.1.9-12.Mevaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem.

3.1.9-12.Ndesign, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity.

3.1.9-12.Oevaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and reproduce.

3.1.9-12.Pask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring.

3.1.9-12.Qmake and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from (1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental factors.

3.1.9-12.Rapply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population.

3.1.9-12.Scommunicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence.

3.1.9-12.Tconstruct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment.

3.1.9-12.Uapply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait.

3.1.9-12.Vcreate or revise a simulation to test a solution to mitigate adverse impacts of human activity on biodiversity.

3.1.9-12.Wconstruct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations.

3.1.9-12.Xevaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may result in (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species.

Physical Science the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.

3.2.9-12.Bplan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.

3.2.9-12.Cconstruct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.

3.2.9-12.Ddevelop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.

3.2.9-12.Eapply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs.

3.2.9-12.F refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.

3.2.9-12.Guse mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.

3.2.9-12.Hdevelop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay.

3.2.9-12.Ianalyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.

3.2.9-12.Juse mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.

3.2.9-12.K apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.

3.2.9-12.Luse mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects.

3.2.9-12.Mplan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current.

3.2.9-12.Ncommunicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.

3.2.9-12.Ocreate a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known.

3.2.9-12.Pdevelop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions of particles (objects) and energy associated with the relative positions of particles (objects).

3.2.9-12.Qdesign, build and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

3.2.9-12.Rplan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution   among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics).

3.2.9-12.Sdevelop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction.

3.2.9-12.Tuse mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media.

3.2.9-12.Uevaluate questions about the advantages of using digital transmission and storage of information.

3.2.9-12.Vevaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other.

3.2.9-12.Wevaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.

3.2.9-12.Xcommunicate technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy.

Earth & Space Science a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to release energy in the form of radiation.

3.3.9-12.Bconstruct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe.

3.3.9-12.Ccommunicate scientific ideas about the way stars, over their life cycle, produce elements.

3.3.9-12.Duse mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system.

3.3.9-12.Euse a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in climate.

3.3.9-12.Fevaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust and the theory of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks.

3.3.9-12.Gapply scientific reasoning and evidence from ancient Earth materials, meteorites, and other planetary surfaces to construct an account of Earth’s formation and early history.

3.3.9-12.Hanalyze geoscience data to make the claim that one change to Earth’s surface can create feedback that causes changes to other Earth systems.

3.3.9-12.Idevelop a model based on evidence of Earth’s interior to describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection.

3.3.9-12.Jdevelop a model to illustrate how Earth’s internal and surface processes operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features.

3.3.9-12.Kplan and conduct an investigation of the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes.

3.3.9-12.Ldevelop a quantitative model to describe the cycling of carbon among the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.

3.3.9-12.M use a computational representation to illustrate the relationships among Earth systems and how those relationships are being modified due to human activity.

3.3.9-12.Nconstruct an argument based on evidence about the simultaneous coevolution of Earth’s systems and life on Earth.

3.3.9-12.O construct an explanation based on evidence for how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity.

3.3.9-12.Pevaluate competing design solutions for developing, managing, and utilizing energy and mineral resources based on cost-benefit ratios.

3.3.9-12.Qcreate a computational simulation to illustrate the relationships among management of natural resources, the sustainability of human populations, and biodiversity.

3.3.9-12.Revaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems.

3.3.9-12.Sanalyze geoscience data and the results from global climate models to make an evidence based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and associated future impacts to Earth systems.

Technology and Engineering various approaches to communicate processes and procedures for using, maintaining, and assessing technological products and systems.

3.5.9-12.Bcritically assess and evaluate a technology that minimizes resource use and resulting waste to achieve a goal.

3.5.9-12.Cdevelop a solution to a technological problem that has the least negative environmental and social impact.

3.5.9-12.Dcritique whether existing or proposed technologies use resources sustainably.

3.5.9-12.Eevaluate how technology and engineering advancements alter human health and capabilities.

3.5.9-12.F evaluate a technological innovation that arose from a specific society’s unique need or want.

3.5.9-12.Gevaluate a technological innovation that was met with societal resistance impacting its development.

3.5.9-12.Hevaluate ways that technology and engineering can impact individuals, society, and the environment.

3.5.9-12.Ievaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.

3.5.9-12.Jsynthesize data and analyze trends to make decisions about technological products, systems, or processes.

3.5.9-12.Kuse a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem.

3.5.9-12.Linterpret laws, regulations, policies, and other factors that impact the development and use of technology.

3.5.9-12.Mdevelop a device or system for the marketplace.

3.5.9-12.Nanalyze and use relevant and appropriate design thinking processes to solve technological and engineering problems.

3.5.9-12.Oapply appropriate design thinking processes to diagnose, adjust, and repair systems to ensure precise, safe, and proper functionality.

3.5.9-12.Papply a broad range of design skills to a design thinking process.

3.5.9-12.Q implement and critique principles, elements, and factors of design.

3.5.9-12.Ruse a design thinking process to design an appropriate technology for use in a different culture.

3.5.9-12.Sconduct research to inform intentional inventions and innovations that address specific needs and wants.

3.5.9-12.Tanalyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.

3.5.9-12.Uevaluate and define the purpose of a design.

3.5.9-12.Vapply principles of human-centered design.

3.5.9-12.Woptimize a design by addressing desired qualities within criteria and constraints while considering trade-offs.

3.5.9-12.Ximplement the best possible solution to a design using an explicit process.

3.5.9-12.Ydesign a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.

3.5.9-12.Zrecognize and explain how their community and the world around them informs technological development and engineering design.

3.5.9-12.AAsafely apply an appropriate range of making skills to a design thinking process.

3.5.9-12.BBassess how similarities and differences among scientific, technological, engineering, and mathematical knowledge and skills contributed to the design of a product or system.

3.5.9-12.CC analyze how technology transfer occurs when a user applies an existing innovation developed for one function for a different purpose.

3.5.9-12.DDdevelop a plan that incorporates knowledge from science, mathematics, and other disciplines to design or improve a technological product or system.

3.5.9-12.EE connect technological and engineering progress to the advancement of other areas of knowledge and vice versa.

3.5.9-12.FFhow technology enhances opportunities for new products and services through globalization.

3.5.9-12.GGevaluate how technology and engineering have been powerful forces in reshaping the social, cultural, political, and economic landscapes throughout history.

3.5.9-12HH how the Industrial Revolution resulted in the development of mass production, sophisticated transportation and communication systems, advanced construction practices, and improved education and leisure time.

3.5.9-12.II investigate the widespread changes that have resulted from the Information Age, which has placed emphasis on the processing and exchange of information.

3.5.9-12.JJidentify and explain how the evolution of civilization has been directly affected by, and has in turn affected, the development and use of tools, materials, and processes.

3.5.9-12.KKrelate how technological and engineering developments have been evolutionary, often the result of a series of refinements to basic inventions or technological knowledge.

3.5.9-12.LLanalyze the stability of a technological system and how it is influenced by all of the components in the system, especially those in the feedback loop.

3.5.9-12.MMtroubleshoot and improve a flawed system embedded within a larger technological, social, or environmental system.

3.5.9-12.NNanalyze the rate of technological and engineering development and predict future diffusion and adoption of new innovations and technologies.

3.5.9-12.OOuse project management tools, strategies, and processes in planning, organizing, and controlling work.

3.5.9-12.PPdemonstrate the use of conceptual, graphical, virtual, mathematical, and physical modeling to identify conflicting considerations before the entire system is developed and to aid in design decision making.

Environmental Literacy and Sustainability and interpret how issues, trends, technologies, and policies impact agricultural, food, and environmental systems and resources.

3.4.9-12.Bapply research and analytical skills to evaluate the conditions and motivations that lead to conflict, cooperation, and change among individuals, groups, and nations.

3.4.9-12.Canalyze and interpret how issues, trends, technologies, and policies impact watersheds and water resources.

3.4.9-12.Dapply research and analytical skills to systematically investigate environmental issues ranging from local issues to those that are regional or global in scope.

3.4.9-12.Eplan and conduct an investigation utilizing environmental data about a local environmental issue.

3.4.9-12.Fevaluate and communicate the effect of integrated pest management practices on indoor and outdoor environments.

3.4.9-12.Ganalyze and evaluate how best resource management practices and environmental laws achieve sustainability of natural resources.

3.4.9-12.Hdesign and evaluate solutions in which individuals and societies can promote stewardship in environmental quality and community well-being.

3.4.9-12.Ianalyze and interpret data on a regional environmental condition and its implications on environmental justice and social equity.